Volume 2 September 2007-August 2008








This page contains Volume 2 of newsletters from September 2007-August 2008.

September 2007

October 2007

November 2007

December 2007

January 2008

February 2008

March 2008

April 2008

May 2008

June 2008

July 2008

August 2008

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

August 2008

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 12, August, 2008

Hello and welcome to the twenty-fourth Personality Pedagogy newsletter
highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu

The big news this month is the week that wasn’t! As you know, Personality
Pedagogy was down for about a week. It seems that some spammers hacked into
the Arcadia University server which hosts Personalty Pedagogy. Our site of
was one of many that were taken down and then moved over to a new and
(hopefully) more secure server. We are sorry for the inconvenience this
caused just as many of you were probably surfing for some inspiration and
ideas for the new school year ahead. Needless to say, we didn’t sleep well
last week either. To make it up to you, this newsletter is our biggest,
packed with some of the best links yet. So check it out!

In happier news, there is a new page open for editing:
This page lists the levels of Maslow’s classic Hierarchy of Needs and
invites you to add your own examples for each of the stages. Remember, you
can identify all the pages that are open for editing by visiting the
Personality Pedagogy home page. If you would like to see a page opened for
editing or if you would like to add something to an existing page, just let
us know!

We encourage you to forward this e-mail to interested colleagues and invite
them to sign up for future issues. As of today, our newsletter goes out to
over 150 readers. We wish each and every one of you a successful start to
the new semester! Happy surfing.


Marianne Miserandino

1. Body Image and Gender Differences

Michael Brit, former professor of psychology, broadcasts a podcast about
psychology called The Psych Files. In this episode (Episode 60) he recorded
members of the cast of ”The Full Monty” musical as they discuss the
differences between men and women when it comes to how each sex views the
other’s body (”The Full Monty” is about ordinary men getting naked in a
strip show. Women from the cast talk about the difference between how men
and women react to each other during a strip show, as well as the difference
between the attractiveness of ”men’s fat and women’s fat”.  Finally, the 6
male leads in the show talk about their feelings about their bodies,
self-consciousness and body image as they prepare to get naked in front of
an audience.

2. Flash Cards
Remember those flash cards with terms or questions on one side and the
answer on the other? Here is a website that allows visitors to create
unlimited flashcards, review others’ flash cards, search for flash cards by
topic, share your flash cards with others, study on-line, and play a memory

3. Assignments

Steve Davis, North Central College, Naperville, IL, provides this syllabus
from his Personality class. In it, he describes a number of interesting
assignments including:

a) Research Article Review
b) Personality Analysis
c) Cartoon Analysis
d) Newspaper Article Analysis
e) Keirsey Temperament Sorter
f) Examples of Defense Mechanisms or Parapraxes
g) Personal Reflection on Identity vs. Role Confusion
h) Locus of Control
i) Choosing a Mate (gender differences, evolutionary theory)
j) Peak Experiences Exercise (Maslow)
k) RET Self-help Exercise (Albert Ellis)

4. Genetic Map of Europe

”Biologists have constructed a genetic map of Europe showing the degree of
relatedness between its various populations”. The New York Times writer
Nicholas Wade’s explanation of genetic variation provides a good
illustration of genetics and evoked cultural variation. Originally published
on August 13, 2008.

5. Genes Make Some People More Prone to Anxiety

This summary of an article by Montag et al. published in the journal
”Behavioral Neuroscience” (2008) states: ”By showing that people who
carry a common variation of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter
dopamine have an exaggerated “startle” reflex when viewing unpleasant
pictures, the researchers offer a biochemical explanation for why some
people find it harder to regulate emotional arousal. Their sensitivity may,
in combination with other hereditary and environmental factors, make them
more prone to anxiety disorders.” The full article is available here:
http://www.apa.org/journals/releases/bne1224901.pdf in PDF.

6. My Body is Wrong
a) Gender Identity Variance

”Should teenagers who believe they are transgender be helped to change sex?
And if so, what about the four-year-olds who feel the same way? Viv Groskop
[writer for ”The Guardian”] meets the parents and doctors in favour of

b) Mermaids: Family Support Group for Children and Teenagers with Gender
Identity Issues

This UK organization offers ”support to parents, families, carers, and
others”, raises ”awareness about gender issues amongst professionals (e.g.
teachers, doctors, social services, etc.,) and the general public” and
campaigns ”for the recognition of this issue and the increase in
professional services”. This website features an overview of medical
issues, hints for families and carers, definitions, resources, research
opportunities, and the writing of young people struggling with gender
identity issues.

c) Gender Identity Research and Education Society

”The aim of this website is to inform a wide public of the issues
surrounding gender identity and transsexualism. It is also a resource for
gender variant people and their families, the medical and other
professionals that provide their care, Health Authorities, Members of
Parliament and other policy makers.”

7. Integrity vs. Despair: Johnny Cash ”Hurt”

The images of an aged Johnny Cash singing the song ”Hurt” interspersed
with images of him as a young man poignantly illustrate the despair aspect
of Erikson’s Developmental Stage: ”What have I become? My sweetest friend.
Everyone I know goes away in the end. And you could have it all:
My empire of dirt”. Music and lyrics by Trent Reznor. (4 minutes, 2

8. Universal Emotions: Pride and Shame

”The victory stance of a gold medalist and the slumped shoulders of a
non-finalist are innate and biological rather than learned responses to
success and failure, according to a University of British Columbia study
using cross-cultural data gathered at the 2004 Olympic and Paralympic
Games.” While the article itself published in the ”Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences” is available to subscribers only, you can
read an abstract and download supporting information including graphs,
photos, and results broken out by type of culture (e.g. individualistic,
collectivistic) by visiting http://www.pnas.org/content/105/33/11655

9. What kind of person blogs?

Using the Five-Factor Model, ”Rosanna Guadagno and colleagues asked over
three hundred students about their blogging habits” They found a
relationship between blogging and the trait of Openness and, for women only,
a correlation between blogging and aspects of Neuroticism.

10. Teaching Clinical Psychology

”This site is devoted to sharing ideas and resources for teaching clinical
psychology, especially undergraduate courses on abnormal psychology,
psychotherapy, group dynamics, psychological testing, and clinical
components of introductory psychology”. This extensive website includes
exercises, examples, essays, handouts and more, including contributions from

11. The Dark Side of Self-Esteem

Current research suggests that level of self-esteem — high or low — is not
nearly as important as variability or stability of self-esteem. Read all
about the paradox of self-esteem in this slide presentation from Virgil
Zeigler-Hill at the University of Southern Mississippi. Includes
definitions, brief history, and a summary of the latest research. (Opens in
Power Point format).

12. Where the Hell is Matt Dancing?

Matt, a 31-year old self-proclaimed deadbeat from Connecticut, was once told
by his friend while traveling in Hanoi ”Hey, why don’t you stand over there
and do that dance. I’ll record it”. The rest is, as they say, Internet
history. In 2005, 2006 and 2008 Matt traveled around the world dancing and
spreading joy. The brief video montages from his travels are sure to make
you smile even as they introduce cultural differences (clothing, housing)
and cultural universals (dancing, smiling, music, positive emotions, and
camaraderie) to your students.

13. Psychology Cartoons

Spice up your lectures with one of these classic single-panel cartoons of
Sydney Harris. In this online collection of science cartoons you will find
references to Freud, Rorschach, brain dominance, Skinner, existentialism,
and more.

14. The How of Happiness

What makes people happy? Is happiness a good thing? How can we make
people happier still? Dr. Sonja Lyubomirsky, University of California,
Riverside, draws on her own research to offer listeners a guide to
increasing happiness in their lives for both the short term and the long
term. From a talk given at Clarmont College, March 4, 2008. (available in
multiple formats for video streaming).

15. Positive Reinforcement: A self-instructional exercise

Athabasca University devised this on-line exercise to teach students ”the
concept of positive reinforcement and also to provide an idea of the kind of
self-instructional exercises used in many Athabasca University course

16. Art and Personality

Does the art you enjoy match your personality? Research by Stian Reimers in
conjunction with the BBC suggests that there is a relationship between the
kind of art people prefer (e.g. Impressionism, Abstract, Japanese, Islamic,
Northern Renaissance, and Cubism) and one’s personality (emotional
intelligence, the five-factor model, and sensation-seeking). Click here to
read more about the findings, art, personality, or to participate in this
online research.

17. Improving Learning, Teaching and Leadership Performance

The mission of the Individual Development & Educational Assessment (IDEA)
Center at at Kansas State University is ”To serve colleges and universities
committed to improving learning, teaching, and leadership performance” This
website contains an extensive collection of resources. Of particular value
are a series of 4-6 page papers on topics ranging from improving lectures
and motivating students to grading, speaking skills, adult learners,
assessment, and student writing.

18. Phobias

”Find out what it is that you fear” by consulting this extensive listing
of common and not-so-common phobias.

19. Cognitive Neuroscience of Mindfulness Meditation

Philippe Goldin, researcher and head of the Clinically Applied Affective
Neuroscience group in
the Department of Psychology at Stanford University gives this talk on
meditation and functioning: ”Mindfulness meditation, one type of meditation
technique, has been shown to enhance emotional awareness and psychological
flexibility as well as induce well-being and emotional balance. Scientists
have also begun to examine how meditation may influence brain functions.
This talk will examine the effect of mindfulness meditation practice on the
brain systems in which psychological functions such as attention, emotional
reactivity, emotion regulation, and self-view are instantiated. We will also
discuss how different forms of meditation practices are being studied using
neuroscientific technologies and are being integrated into clinical practice
to address symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress.”

20. Caring for Your Introvert: The Habits and Needs of a Little-Understood

”Do you know someone who needs hours alone every day? Who loves quiet
conversations about feelings or ideas, and can give a dynamite presentation
to a big audience, but seems awkward in groups and maladroit at small talk?
If you answered yes to these questions, chances are that you have an
introvert on your hands—and that you aren’t caring for him properly.” Read
about what life is like as an introvert by Atlantic writer Jonathan Rauch
(published March 2007). Then check out
http://thecanalsblog.com/2007/10/caring-for-your-introvert.html from October
2007 to see the specific Do’s and Don’ts advocated by Danny, an introvert.
Includes links to the reader-proclaimed introvert anthem ”Every Word You
Say” in versions by Jesse Winchester and Jerry Garcia (lyrics can be found

July 2008

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 11, July, 2008

Hello and welcome to the twenty-third Personality Pedagogy newsletter
highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

The big news this month is that we have a new page for resources about
perfectionism (alas, the page only has a few resources and is therefore not
quite perfect…). Also, readers have been adding to the Erikson examples
n) and the Horney Three Neurotic Personality Styles page
uroticPersonalityStyles). Why not join them by posting your examples on
these or the other wiki pages open for editing (listed here:

Well, we’re nearly into the so-called dog-days of summer. Take a break from
reading fluffy summer fiction and give yourself a good intellectual
challenge: This month’s issue features the latest research in personality
plus a video of Martin Seligman giving a TED talk from 2004 (if you don’t
know what the TED talks are all about, check out http://www.ted.com/ to see
videos of ”Inspired talks by the world’s greatest thinkers and doers”).

Please forward this e-mail to interested colleagues and invite them to sign
up for future issues. So, pour a nice tall glass of your favorite summer
beverage and get busy reading and contributing to the read-write web via
Personality Pedagogy.


Marianne Miserandino

1. Idiogrid:Developing and managing self-report data

James W. Grice of Oklahoma State University developed software for his
idiographic research which he is currently offering for free to instructors
and researchers. From the website: ”Idiogrid is software for administering,
managing, and analyzing different types of self-report data [e.g. attitude
scales, personality questionnaires, trait profiles, values test]. It was
originally designed around George Kelly’s repertory grid technique but has
been developed to include person-centered and questionnaire methodologies
employed by researchers from a wide variety of domains (e.g., personality
psychologists, self-concept researchers, clinical psychologists, market
researchers, and sociologists).” The site provides extensive support and
resources for using the software for clinical, organizational and classroom
demonstrations and assignments.

2. James W. Grice’s Personality Research Laboratory at Oklahoma State

Current project include The Dynamic Analog Scale: a Single-Item Measure of
General Personality Constructs, Merging Idiographic and Nomothetic Ratings
of Self and Others, Self-Discrepancies on the Big Five Personality Traits,
An Algebraic Model of Self-Reflexion and the Idiogrid software program.

3. Girls Equal Boys in Math

”An analysis of performance on math tests finds that girls match boys. And
no gender difference can be found among top performers either”, according
to research by Janet Shibley Hyde and colleagues as reported in Science,
July 25, 2008. Click the link above for a summary and online supplemental
material, or listen to a summary from 60-second science here
54FE) and read an APA press release here

4. Culture, Gender and Math

Research by Luigi Guiso, Ferdinando Monte, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi
Zingales in ”Science”, 320(5880), pp. 1164-1165 suggests that gender gap
in mathematics virtually disappears in societies where boys and girls have
similar access to resources and opportunities. Click on the link above to
download the special online supplement which includes an overview,
description of data collection, graphs, and tables.

5. Are you a Different Person in a Different Language?

”People who are bicultural and speak two languages may actually shift their
personalities when they switch from one language to another”, according to
research by David Luna, Torsten Ringberg, and Laura A. Peracchio using a
modified version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). The original article
was published in the Journal of Consumer Research
(http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/586914) but you can read
an extensive and critical summary of this article and related research here
(http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=284) by Mark Liberman on his
Language Log blog.

6. Egotistical Youth?

Using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Jean Twenge and colleagues at
San Diego State University, have analyzed ”published and unpublished data
on self-reported undergraduate narcissism, dating from the late 1970s to the
present day. The data showed today’s youth really are more egotistical than
in previous eras.” Published in the Journal of Personality

7. Is Perfectionism Good or Bad?

The answer is “both” according to Oliver Stoll and his colleagues, who claim
that ”there are actually two aspects to perfectionism: one is striving for
perfection, the other is having negative reactions to a less than perfect
performance. Their prediction was that the striving aspect would be
beneficial to sports training, while the negative reactions aspect would be
harmful.” Published in the journal ”Psychology of Sport and Exercise”

8. When the Self Emerges: Is That Me in the Mirror?

An overview of the ”mirror test” which ”remains the best experiment yet
developed for examining the emergence of self-concept in infants” according
to Jeremy Dean in PsyBlog.

9. Mirrors Don’t Lie. Mislead? Oh Yes.

A good overview of current research on self-recognition in humans and other
animals, self-awareness, and other interesting mirror-related phenomena by
science writer Natalie Angier. Published: July 22, 2008. (Remember that an
on-line subscription to The New York Times is necessary but free to view
this and other articles from The New York Times).

10. How your Behaviour Can Change Your Children’s DNA

This article from the The Sunday Times, July 20, 2008 summarizes new
research which questions traditional assumptions that one’s lifestyle has
little impact on the genes of future generations. The findings suggest that
”we can alter family traits for better or for worse…that DNA can be
modified or imprinted with the experiences of your parents and

11. Homosexual Behavior Largely Shaped By Genetics And Random Environmental

According to the world’s largest study of twins by Niklas Långström and
colleagues published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior, June 7, 2008,
”homosexual behaviour is largely shaped by genetics and random
environmental factors…which may include biological processes (which are
specific to an individual, and may include biological processes such as
different hormone exposure in the womb), are important determinants of
homosexual behaviour.”

12. Bisexuality Not Just a Phase But a Distinct Sexual Orientation in Women

Click to access dev4415.pdf

Diamond, L. M. (2008). Female Bisexuality From Adolescence to Adulthood:
Results From a 10-Year Longitudinal Study. ”Developmental Psychology”,
44(1),  5–14.

13. Morningness is a Predictor of Better Grades in College

”Morningness is a predictor of better grades in college, according to a
research abstract that [was] presented on June 9 at SLEEP 2008, the 22nd
Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies (APSS)”.
by Kendry Clay.

14. Evening-type College Students On Early Daytime Class Schedules At A

”Eveningness is associated with not only later phases of a person’s
sleep-wake cycle, but also with sleep irregularities, more pronounced sleep
restriction during the week, and higher sleep compensation on weekends.
Evening type college students may, therefore, need a sleep education that
helps them adjust to imposed morning schedules, and would probably benefit
from later class schedules, according to a research abstract that will be
presented on June 10 at SLEEP 2008, the 22nd Annual Meeting of the
Associated Professional Sleep Societies (APSS)” by Ana A. Gomes.

15. Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale

According to the BBC, this 35-item questionnaire was designed by Randy
Frost, Smith College, to measure ”how much of a perfectionist you are”.
Participants receive feedback on 6 subscales: Concern over Mistakes,
Personal Standards, Parent Expectations, Parental Criticism, Doubting of
Actions and Organization.

16. Paul Hewitt Perfectionism Lab at the University of British Columbia

Hewitt’s research focuses on ”the construct of perfectionism as a
maladaptive and multidimensional personality trait and interpersonal
style…He is conducting research on the treatment of perfectionism and
provides assessment and treatment for individuals with perfectionism
problems and trains clinicians in the treatment of perfectionistic
behaviour. He also conducts workshops on the treatment of perfectionism and
does public lectures and presentations.”

17. Martin Seligman TED talk: Why is Psychology Good?

”Martin Seligman talks about psychology — as a field of study and as it
works one-on-one with each patient and each practitioner. As it moves beyond
a focus on disease, what can modern psychology help us to become?” Provides
a good overview of positive psychology including happiness, positive
emotion, the good life, flow, meaning, and human strengths. From the
February 2004 conference themed ”The Pursuit of Happiness”. (video: 23
minutes 41 seconds).

June 2008

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 10, June, 2008

Hello and welcome to the twenty-second Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

The big news is that Personality Pedagogy has been splashed! What exactly does this mean? Well, clinical psychologist Gareth Furber from South Australia started the Psych Splash website to showcase interesting psychology-related sites he found. Each day he highlights a site by describing the intended audience, topics, and features of the site. His site is fully searchable, so you can jump right in and check out some new sites! We thank Gareth for featuring Personality Pedagogy earlier this month.

So, what new links do we have for you this month? Frankly,taken together, the sites highlighted below sound like juicy summer reading: seduction, procrastination, divorce, virtual workouts, celebrity gossip, a groom-to-be who’s got a surprise for his bride, hope and inspiration, job interviews, and The Boy Who Sees Without Eyes. What do these have to do with teaching personality psychology? Read on to find out!

We encourage you to forward this e-mail to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues. As of this today, our newsletter goes out to over 150 readers. Until next time, enjoy your time away from regular classes.


Marianne Miserandino

1. Annotated papers by Freud

Marc Fonda has compiled an annotated bibliography for many volumes of James Strachey’s ”The Standard Edition of the Collected Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud”. Includes the Interpretation of Dreams, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis, Leonardo da Vinci and Other Works, Moses and Monotheism, and Two Case Studies including Little Hans and the Rat Man.

2. Admiring Celebrities Can Boost Self-Esteem

Science Daily reports on a study by Jaye L. Derrick and Shira Gabriel of the University at Buffalo published in Personal Relationships which shows how ‘connections’ to celebrities can help people with low-self esteem to view themselves more positively by allowing them to ”feel closer to the ideals they hold for themselves”.

3. 81 Words

In this episode of the NPR program This American Life, originally broadcast January 18, 2002, host Ira Glass describes ”The story of how the American Psychiatric Association decided in 1973 that homosexuality was no longer a mental illness” and struck out 81 words from the DSM. (60 minutes; Can be listened to online for free, downloaded for a small fee, or purchased on CD).

4. A Theory for the 90s: Traumatic Seduction in Historical Context

A draft of this paper was originally published as: Davis, D.A. (1994). A Theory for the 90s: Freud’s Seduction Theory in Historical Context. Psychoanalytic Review, 81(4), 627-640.

5. Case Study: Little Hans

BBC radio host Claudia Hammond ”presents a series on case studies that have made a significant contribution to psychological research.” In this episode which originally aired May 28 2008, she describes background and new findings related to the case of Little Hans, a.k.a. Herbert, the child of Freud’s colleague Max Graff. Information recently released from the Freud Archive suggests that problems in the Graff family — rather than an Oedipus Complex — could explain Hans’ fear of horses. Includes a discussion of the implications for therapy with children today. (29 minutes; listen on line).

6. Procrastination

The Procrastination Research Group at Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada maintains this page full of references and resources for understanding — and even managing — procrastination. In addition, Timothy A. Pychyl maintains the ”Don’t Delay” procrastination blog at ”Psychology Today” in which he discusses current personality research and the ”iProcrastinate” podcasts discussing why we procrastinate and what we can do about it.

7. What If My Fiance Is Gay?

A reader asks ”I’m engaged to a man I love. I had no worries until two weeks ago, when he confessed that he used to have gay relationships.” What to do? ”Psychology Today” writer Hara Estroff Marano reviews the research and provides advice to this reader.

8. Positive Psychology Questionnaires

The Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania maintains an extensive website on Positive Psychology. On their questionnaires page find background information and links to over 15 surveys used in positive psychology research including the Gratitude Questionnaire, Adult Hope Scale, Gratitude Scale, and more.

9. Psychometric success: Everything you ned to pass job selection tests

While ultimately this site wants you to buy their products and visit their sponsors, along the way they do provide a good overview of how personality and aptitude tests are used in hiring and selection. They also describe and provide briefs samples of the following tests: numerical aptitude, verbal aptitude, abstract reasoning, spatial ability, technical ability, clerical aptitude, and personality.

10. Extraordinary People: The Boy Who Sees Without Eyes

”This is a documentary about a boy (Ben Underwood) who has taught himself to use echo location to navigate around the world. Ben Underwood is blind, but has managed to do some truly extraordinary feats”. From a BBC special in 5 parts. If you click on ”more info” you’ll get the urls for all 5 parts. This is amazing and uplifting story could illustrate self-actualization and the strength of the human spirit (each part runs about 10-12 minutes and can stand alone).

11. Gender-based Math Gap Missing in Some Countries

Summarizes a study published in the May 20, 2008 ”Science” which found that: ”Boys outperform girls on a math test given to children worldwide, but the gender gap is less pronounced in countries where women and men have similar rights and opportunities…In more gender-neutral societies, girls are as good as boys in mathematics.” Note: While the article itself is available online only to subscribers, you can download a summary, tables and background information here: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/data/320/5880/1164/DC1/1 (Opens in PDF format).

12. Virtual You Changes the Real You

This episode of Scientific American’s podcast ”60-Second Psych” summarizes research from the Virtual Human Interaction lab at Stanford University. Watching a digital clone of themselves jogging led participants in the experimental group to exercise almost an hour longer than participants in the control group who watched a clone of another person. See http://www.sciam.com/podcast/ for more information about these podcasts.

May 2008

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 9, May, 2008

Hello and welcome to the twenty-first Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

“All things seem possible in May” according to American naturalist Edwin Way Teale. Whether it’s the excitement of new beginnings, the school year coming to an end, or just the return of warm weather, this is a perfect time to try something new: edit one of our open wiki pages. Check here http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu/pmwiki/pmwiki.php?n=Contributions.Index to see what is currently open for editing or suggest a page that you want to edit and we’ll open it up for editing. So we’ll keep this newsletter short so you can hit you computer and start editing!

Please forward this e-mail to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues, and enjoy these lovely spring days.


Marianne Miserandino

1. Transgenderism
Earlier this month NPR reporter Alix Spiegel did a sensitive two-part series on transgenderism. Part I considers whether transgenderism is “a pathology due to a dysfunctional environment” or a just a “moral variant of human behavior” (22 minutes 45 seconds). In Part II one family struggles with what to do with their transgendered daughter as she is about to go through puberty (20 minutes 12 seconds).

a) Two Families Grapple with Sons’ Gender Preferences:
Psychologists Take Radically Different Approaches in Therapy
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90247842 (Part 1)

b) Parents Consider Treatment to Delay Son’s Puberty:
New Therapy Would Buy Time to Resolve Gender Crisis
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90273278 (Part 2)

2. Cultural Circles Exercise

Phani Radhakrishnan, University of Toronto, designed the Cultural Circles Exercise to help students in her Diversity in the Workplace class become more aware of cultural identity. Students discuss their own heritage and cultural background one-on-one with others in the class and identify sources of pride in their own culture.

3. Self-Conceptions from Childhood to Adolescence: A brief experiment


All graduating seniors in the Psychology Department at Sweet Briar College leave behind a legacy in the form of a project which inspired them as a student. Alumnae to Chantal Yavari ’02 summarizes the results of a study she did in which four participants aged 5, 11, 16, and 20 answer the question “Who am I?”. This makes a good class exercise as well as providing interesting examples for a class on identity development.

4. SPSS Assistance Site

The Psychology Department at the University of George put together this website on using SPSS for data analysis and reporting the results in APA format. Topics include dependent samples t-test, independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, Pearson correlations, and chi-square tests. Each topic includes an assignment, a worksheet and data to play with, a step-by-step guide of how to do the test, a sample output, and examples of how to present the results in APA format. (Note that the pictures associated with the links on the left are broken, but the links themselves are functional).

5. How Teachers Can Promote Students’ Autonomy During Instruction

Click to access reeveierea.pdf

Johnmarshall Reeve, University of Iowa, presented this talk at the 2005 Conference of the Iowa Educational Research and Evaluation Association, applying self-determination theory to increasing student motivation and engagement in the classroom (opens in pdf format).

6. High Self-esteem Is Not Always What It’s Cracked Up To Be

This article from Science Digest summarizes research by Michael Kernis discussing fragile self-esteem. Kernis’ research suggests that in addition to level of self-esteem — as high or low — we need to consider variability of self-esteem.

7. Three Reasons Why Money Brings Satisfaction But Not Happiness

Jeremy Dean, in his PsyBlog, reviews research on money and happiness to answer the question “If money doesn’t bring happiness, then why do people behave as though it does?”

8. Imposterism or Self-presentation?

In this article from the New York Times, Benedict Carey reviews current research which suggests that “Feelings of phoniness appear to alter people’s goals in unexpected ways and may also protect them against subconscious self-delusions”.

9. Wegner (2008): Self is Magic

Click to access self%20is%20magic_wegner.pdf

According to Wegner, “Our actions are an astonishing realm of events that bend to our desires when so much of the world does not. Perhaps this is why each person views self with awe–The Great Selfini amazes and delights! We are enchanted by the operation of our minds and bodies into believing that we are “uncaused causes,” the origins of our own behavior.” Check out the full article: Wegner, D. M. (2008). Self is magic. In J. Baer, J. C. Kaufman, & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Are we free? Psychology and free will (pp. 226-247).  New York: Oxford University Press. (Opens in PDF format)

10. Never Ever Give Up

This YouTube video (2 minutes and 42 seconds long) tells the story of a young man who lived a hard life (his mother died when he was young, he had no education, lost jobs, etc.). At the very end of the video we find out that this young man was Abraham Lincoln.

11. Motivation

Jackie Bruce, The Pennsylvania State University, created this extensive resource page for the Youth Leadership Training Program. Included are lesson plans, activities, and PowerPoint slides for various topics including leadership, teamwork, conflict management, goal setting, and more. The unit on motivation includes an overview of motivational theories and of Maslow, and McClelland in particular.

12. “If at First You Don’t Succeed…You’re in Excellent Company”

Melinda Beck, in this Wall Street Journal article with accompanying slide show, tells the story of famous people who overcame setbacks on the road to success, including J.K. Rowling, Michael Jordan, Walt Disney, and others.

April 2008

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 8, April, 2008

Hello and welcome to the twentieth Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

It’s still April…even if just by a few days. For most of us you know what that means: The end of the semester is not too far away!! We’ll make this newsletter short and sweet so that you — and we — can get back to our grading.

People have asked us what can they do to spice up certain topics. Aside from what’s posted on the site, what can you do to liven up a lecture? Our four favorite things to do — when we don’t know what else to do — are (1) show a video clip from a movie to illustrate a concept (you can do a Google search for videos specifically) (2) play a song and project the lyrics (or better still, find a cool music video illustrating the song) (3) break the class into groups to discuss a topic and report back to the class as a whole and (4) have students act out various concepts while the class has to identify the concept. In the past month alone one of us showed an excerpt from Ferris Bueller’s day off to illustrate the Machiavellian personality, had students act out various manipulation techniques, and played Carrie Underwood’s song “Before He Cheats” to illustrate direct and indirect ways of evoking anger and upset in a spouse (see below for these and other cool links this month). If !
you have other favorite ideas or assignments, please e-mail them to us or add them yourself to http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu/pmwiki/pmwiki.php?n=Content.Assignments

Remember that we are always looking for contributions to and discussions on the Wiki portion of Personality Pedagogy. Click on a page and follow the directions for editing. If the page you want to edit isn’t currently available for editing, just let us know and we’ll open it up to you.

Please forward this e-mail to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues, and good luck with your classes as the end of the semester nears.


Marianne Miserandino

1. Ferris Bueller, the Lovable High Machiavellian

In this scene from Ferris Bueller’s Day off (1986), Ferris Bueller pretends he is Abe Froman, “the sausage king of Chicago” in order to have a fancy luncheon out with his friends. This situation contains the three conditions which allow high machs to perform their best: a face to face interaction, the latitude for improvisation, and the arousal of irrelevant emotion. (3 minutes, 17 seconds).

2. Before He Cheats

Carrie Underwood sings about taking revenge on her cheating boyfriend. You might well wonder what he’ll do when he sees the wreck she’s left of his truck. The song vividly illustrates how people directly and indirectly evoke anger and upset in their partners. (Wonder where she falls in terms of agreeableness and conscientiousness).

3. The Psych Files: Basic Research Design Part 1 (Episode 45) and Part 2 Factorial Designs (Episode 52)

Michael Brit, former professor of psychology, broadcasts a podcast about psychology called The Psych Files. Part I features: Independent variables, dependent variables, t-tests, anovas, experiments, between subjects, within subjects, confounds… confused? You won’t be after you watch this week’s video episode. Learn research methods in psychology the fun way – by choosing an interesting topic. In part II: we delve into a two by two factorial research design. Sounds dull you say? Well, I’ll try my best to make it kinda fun.

4. Childhood Personality Predicts Long-Term Trajectories of Shyness and Aggressiveness

Jaap J. A. Dennissen, Jens B. Asendorpf, Marcel A. G. van Aken (2008) Childhood Personality Predicts Long-Term Trajectories of Shyness and Aggressiveness in the Context of Demographic Transitions in Emerging Adulthood. Journal of Personality 76 (1), 67Ð100. This study suggests that children’s personality can predict the timing of key transitional moments between childhood and adulthood including leaving the parents’ home, establishing a romantic relationship, and entering the world of part-time work.

5. Psychoanalysis From Both Sides of The Couch

Shrink Rap Radio: A Psychology talk and Interview Show (Podcast; Show #144, March 24, 2008). In this episode, Dr. Dave talks with Fern W. Cohen, PhD, a psychoanalyst and psychotherapist in private practice in New York City, has long been committed to conveying in everyday language what the psychoanalytic process is about and how it works. She is the author of the 2007 book, From Both Sides of The Couch: Reflections of A Psychoanalyst, Daughter, Tennis Player, and Other Selves.

6. The Happiness Hypothesis

Shrink Rap Radio: A Psychology talk and Interview Show (Podcast; Show #142, March 14, 2008). In this episode, Dr. Dave talks with Jonathan Haidt, Ph.D., a social and cultural psychologist and author of the 2006 book, The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom.

7. The Authoritarian Personality

Shrink Rap Radio: A Psychology talk and Interview Show (Podcast; Show #127, March 14, 2008). In this episode, Dr. Dave talks with Robert Altemeyer, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Manitoba and the world’s leading authority on The Authoritarian Personality, a topic he has researched and written on extensively. In fact, he has made a book on this topic available for free.

8. The Authoritarian Personality: The Book

The Authoritarians, by Robert Altemeyer (2007), University of Manitoba, is a review of research on the Authoritarian Personality as applied to American Politics. The entire book is available on this website in PDF format.

9. Jungian Sandplay Therapy

Shrink Rap Radio: A Psychology talk and Interview Show (Podcast; Show #135, January 30, 2008). In this episode, Dr. Dave talks with Liza J. Ravitz, Ph.D., a Jungian Analyst who teaches at the San Francisco C.G. Jung InstituteÕs continuing education program. Liza practices in San Francisco and Petaluma where she works with children and adults, conducts consultation groups for therapists and presents sandplay workshops.

10. Adventures in Jungian Typology

Shrink Rap Radio: A Psychology talk and Interview Show (Podcast; Show #140, February 29, 2008). In this episode, Dr. Dave talks with John Beebe, M.D., a Jungian analyst in practice in San Francisco. He received degrees from Harvard College and the University of Chicago medical school. He is a past President of the C.G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, where he is currently on the teaching faculty, as well as Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California Medical School, San Francisco.

11. e-Textbook: Qualitative Methods Workbook

From the electronic textbook created by George Boeree of Shippensburg University for his Qualitative Research Methods course. Includes chapters on Phenomenological Description, Structural Analysis, Observation, Interviewing and other techniques.

12. Gender Inequity in Whoville?

NPR commentator Peter Sagal and his daughters discover that sexism is alive and well in the just-released movie Horton Hears a Who — sexism that was not in the original 1954 book.

13. Who’s that Beautiful Baby?

How can we have changed so much from when we were children and yet still be the same person? Use this entertaining slide show quiz of celebrity baby pictures to introduce the idea of self-concept and personality continuity.

14. Finding Help: How to Choose a Psychotherapist

From the website: At some time in our lives, each of us may feel overwhelmed and may need help dealing with our problems… Sometimes we need outside help from a trained, licensed professional in order to work through these problems. Through therapy, psychologists help millions of Americans of all ages live healthier, more productive lives. This article describes what psychotherapy is, how to find a psychologist, what questions to ask, how to pay for therapy, credentials to look for, how to know if therapy is working and more.

March 2008

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 7, March, 2008

Hello and welcome to the nineteenth Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

The big news this month is that…spring is coming soon to a school near you. If your school is anything like my school, spring generally brings frisbees, flip-flops, and flagging motivation! And not only on the part of the students. So, if you’re in the mid-semester doldrums, check out the 14 new and amazing links to perk up your personality class listed below.

We’re sending out a plea this month, as our motivation is no better than that of our students: what new topics would you like to see covered in Personality Pedagogy? Please send us your suggestions and our top notch staff of personalty geeks will get right on it. Remember, we’re always on the lookout for interesting and useful links related to personality psychology, so please send us your favorite activities, videos, and web sites.

Don’t forget to forward this e-mail to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues!


Marianne Miserandino

1. Spot the high sensation seeker

Check out this amateur video of the ride down the Giant Drop at Australia’s Dreamland park, reputed to be the world’s largest free fall ride in the world. Stay tuned to the very end, and see one guy — the one holding the camera — obviously thrilled, while the guy next to him is showing abject terror!

2. Personality Plagiarism

From the ”Mind Hacks” web site:”When you present yourself to potential suitors in an online dating profile, you are, in the terminology of psychology, ‘constructing the self’. Perhaps it’s not surprising then, that the most attractive profiles are being ripped off and plagiarised by lazy daters wanting to freeload on the most creative members’ personalities.”

3. SPARROW: Sound and Picture Archives for Research on Women

This website preserves and shares oral history, photograph images, videos, and more about the lives of women in India.

4. Multicultural Pavilion

Paul Gorski, at the University of Virginia, designed, facilitates and maintains this site which features links on a wide range of topics including sexual orientation, religious diversity, gender, and ethnicity, e-mail forums, and online networking.

5. Psychmovies.com

Brooke J. Cannon, Marywood University, created and maintains this extensive site which lists movies illustrating psychological principles organized by topic, genre, and popularity ratings. Check out her suggestions for mood disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and more.

6. Teaching Psychology Through Film

Especially if the previous link is of interest to you, check out Raymond J. Green’s ”Teaching Tips” column on ”Teaching Psychology Through Film, Video” which ran in ”Psychological Science” and is available online here. He discusses the whys, hows, and pitfalls of using films to teach psychological concepts.

7.Participate in Online Research

The ”Social Psychology Network”, maintained by Scott Plous, Wesleyan University, lists over 150 web-based experiments, surveys, and other social psychological studies. Click on the section labeled ”Personality and Individual differences” to find links to studies on various topics such as the Five Factor Model, birth season, motivation, anxiety and more.

8. Summary of Research on the Strange Situation

Writer Jeremy Dean of the UK maintains ”PsyBlog”. In this blog, he often presents current research, debunks psychological myths, or summarizes interesting lines of research for a lay audience. In this entry, he summarizes research on the Strange Situation.

9. Emotional Intelligence Developed for Computerized Tutors

Science Daily, March 7, 2008, reports that researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have developed a computerized tutor which demonstrates emotional intelligence by responding to students’ emotions such as anger, frustration, or boredom by monitoring students’ body language, attention and other cues.

10. Happiness is in the Genes

Click to access Weiss.pdf

Weiss, A., Bates, T. C., & Luciano, M. (2008). Happiness Is a Personal(ity) Thing: The Genetics of Personality and Well-Being in a Representative Sample. ”Psychological Science 19 (3)”, 205-210. (Opens in PDF format.)

11. Sex Differences Extend into the Brain

Science Daily, March 3, 2008, reports that neuroscience research is coming closer to confirming sex differences in brain structures and function.

12. Field Dependence-Independence: Some Back Story

Click to access FDFIBackStory.pdf

Richard S. Croft, Eastern Oregon University, wrote this handout for his multimedia theory class. In it, he discusses a brief history of the concept, how it is measured, and the implication of this personality variable for web designers. (Opens in PDF format.)

13. How Field Dependence-Independence Affects Learners

Terry Musser, Penn State University, wrote this extensive overview including an overview of field dependence-independence, how this personality variable affects learning, implications for assessment, and practical recommendations for educators.

14. Field Independent-Dependent Learning Styles and L2 Acquisition

Imagine you have just arrived in a foreign country whose language you neither speak nor read… What will you do? In this article from the ELT Newsletter, which is edited and produced by NetLearn Languages, the Online Language School (Article 102, June 2002) Robert Wyss discusses the personality variable of field independence-dependence, provides a brief checklist to measure it, and discusses how one style or the other affects language learning.

February 2008

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 6, February, 2008

Hello and welcome to the eighteenth Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

The big news this month is that we are slowly opening up more and more pages for true wiki editing. You can now add your own contributions to the Assignments page by clicking on the edit button yourself. Of course, you are most welcome to send your ideas and contributions directly to us, and we will post them for you. Just drop an e-mail to miserandino@arcadia.edu. Remember, we’re always on the lookout for interesting and useful links related to personality psychology, so please send us your favorite activities, videos, and web sites.

We’re sorry to report that some of our favorite films — like the little Albert video — have been removed from YouTube. We’re in the middle of our routine cleaning up of broken and out-dated links on Personality Pedagogy. We hope to remove or update that and other out-dated links over the next few weeks.

So, check out our new links this month described below, pass this e-mail along to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues.


Marianne Miserandino

1. Nine Reasons to Get Psychotherapy

“When is it time to consider psychotherapy?” was written by Karen Rogers, MFCC, Former Clinical Director of the Marina Counseling Center and a therapist with over 20 years in private practice in San Francisco. This sensitive list helps visitors recognize when they need help with their problems.

2. Attachment Theory: Circle of Security Project

This video presents an overview of attachment theory, the strange situation, and the Circle of Security Project in which parents are taught skills to help their child develop good attachment, provide a safe haven, and explore the world from a secure base (8 minute 26 seconds).

3. Calisphere: The University of California Image Library

A project of the California Digital Library, Calisphere features themed collections organized by historical era; images of African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics Americans, and Native Americans; the Japanese American Relocation Digital Archive and more. Special section for teachers of K-12 History and Social Sciences and how the collection meets the California curriculum standards for these classes.

4. Ethnic Identity

Joseph E. Trimble, Center for Cross-Cultural Research at Western Washington University, studies ethnic identity, ethnic gloss, and measurement of ethnic self-identification. His site is filled with papers and ideas for how to infuse diversity into your class, including the 39-page booklet ”Toward an Inclusive Psychology: Infusing the Introductory Psychology Textbook With Diversity Content”. Opens in PDF format.

5. Multiple Intelligences

Check out this site for a description, overview, and resources on how the concept of multiple intelligences can be applied to teaching and learning.

6. Behavioral Genetics: Free Textbook

Behavioral Genetics: An introduction to how genes and environments interact through development to shape differences in mood, personality, and intelligence. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and The Hastings Center have made this book free and available for downloading. ”This book is an introduction for non-scientists to the science of behavioral genetics and its broader ethical and social implications. Among the topics covered are how scientists explore the influence of genes and environment on behavior and how such research may challenge our understanding of human nature, personal responsibility, and equality.”

7. Identity through the lifespan
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NmoE8_U-JTw (video)
http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=3976 (lyrics)

The song ”One Hundred Years” by Five For Fighting captures what it’s like to be 15 and madly in love and then follows that love through an imagined lifetime. Would make a good introduction to identity, Erikson, and personality stability and change.

8. Identity vs. Role Confusion: Numb by Linkin Park
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kXYiU_JCYtU (video)
http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/linkinpark/numb.html (lyrics)

The song and video “Numb” by Linkin Park vividly illustrates Erikson’s Identity vs. Role Confusion stage.

9. Famous Black Lives Through DNA’s Prism

This ”New York Times” article gives an overview of the new PBS Series ”African-American Lives 2” in which Henry Louis Gates Jr. uses DNA evidence, archival research, and good old-fashioned detective work to trace the family trees of Morgan Freeman, Chris Rock, Tina Turner and others. Includes a brief video and links to related web sites (Remember that a subscription to the ”New York Times” online is free).

10. State Hostility Scale

The scale and scoring instructions for the State Hostility Scale as well as the Aggressive Motives Scale are available from Craig A. Anderson’s web site at Iowa State University. Anderson’s research is on the impact of violence in the media including violent songs and violent video games.

11. My Favorite Liar

Consider this one a Special Newsletter-Only Bonus. This is not specifically about personality, but it is a true story about an amazing faculty member and how he employed lying to teach critical thinking.

January 2008

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 5, January, 2008

Hello and welcome to the seventeenth Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

Happy New Year and welcome back to the so-called “spring” semester! We trust that you enjoyed a wonderful holiday season and are ready for the new or continuing semester ahead.

We’re sorry to report that some of our favorite films — like the little Albert video — have been removed from YouTube. We’re in the middle of our routine cleaning up of broken and out-dated links on Personality Pedagogy. We hope to remove or update that and other out-dated links over the next few weeks.

Thanks to everybody who visited Marianne’s poster at the National Institute for the Teaching of Psychology Conference in Florida in early January. Marianne and her SysAdmin/computer geek husband ended up jointly presenting her poster on the Wonderful World of Wikis to lots of interested visitors. More and more instructors are looking to incorporate technology in their classes and a wiki is just one of the many ways to do this. This is a fantastic conference for teachers of psychology, by the way, so you should consider going sometime (check out their website at http://www.nitop.org/). We’ve posted the handout from Marianne’s poster on Personality Pedagogy under general resources. She’ll also be presenting on wikis at the The Midwest Institute for Students and Teachers of Psychology (MISTOP) at the College of DuPage in Glen Ellyn, IL at the end of February. Check out that conference at http://www.cod.edu/people/faculty/puccio/MISTOP.htm

The big news this month is that we are slowly opening up more and more pages for true wiki editing. You can now add your own contributions to the Assignments page by clicking on the edit button yourself. Of course, you are most welcome to send your ideas and contributions directly to us, and we will post them for you. Just drop an e-mail to miserandino@arcadia.edu.

Check out our new links this month described below and pass this e-mail along to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues. If it’s true that “well begun is half done” then here’s to a great beginning of the new semester!


Marianne Miserandino

1. Reinforcement

This award-winning commercial from Europe can be used to illustrate many principles of conditioning including positive and negative reinforcement, partial reinforcement, and extinction.

2. Discriminative Stimuli

This hilarious video clip labeled “Why waste a temper tantrum if nobody is around to see it” can illustrate discriminative stimuli (thanks to Edward I. Pollak, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, for pointing this and the previous link out to the PsychTeach discussion list).

3. Yale University Introductory Psychology Lectures on line
Yale University now has many courses available in video, audio, and written form as part of their Open Yale program. Includes reading assignments and class notes. Listen to these lectures from Paul Bloom’s Introduction to Psychology course from the Spring of 2007:

a) Freud

“This lecture introduces students to the theories of Sigmund Freud, including a brief biographical description and his contributions to the field of psychology. The limitations of his theories of psychoanalysis are covered in detail, as well as the ways in which his conception of the unconscious mind still operate in mainstream psychology today.”

b) Skinner

“Professor Bloom opens with a brief discussion of the value and evolutionary basis of unconscious processing. The rest of this lecture introduces students to the theory of Behaviorism, particularly the work of prominent behaviorist, B. F. Skinner. Different types of learning are discussed in detail, as well as reasons why behaviorism has been largely displaced as an adequate theory of human mental life.”

c) Positive Psychology

“Professor Bloom ends with a review of one of the most interesting research topics in “positive psychology,” happiness. What makes us happy? How does happiness vary across person and culture? What is happiness for? Students will hear how the most recent research in psychology attempts to answer these questions and learn how people are surprisingly bad at predicting what will make them happiest.”

4. The Efficacy of Talk Therapy

The New York Times summarizes the results of a landmark study “A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Panic Disorder” by New York analysts Barbara Milrod and colleagues (2007) in the American Journal of Psychiatry (Volume 164, pages 265-272) testing the efficacy of talk therapy.

5. What Freud Got Right: Evidence from Neurologists

Evidence from the field of neuropsychoanalysis suggests that Freud’s concepts such as drive, libido, and unconscious “are consonant with the most advanced contemporary neuroscience views,” according to neurologist Antonio Damasio”. Read all about it in this article “What Freud Got Right: His Theories, Long Discredited, Are Finding Support From Neurologists Using Modern Brain Imaging” by Fred Guter from the November 11, 2002 issue of Newsweek.

6. How to Conduct Research

Gary McCullough, University of Texas, created this laboratory manual to guide students through the process. Includes sections on finding an idea, researching background literature, generating a viable hypothesis, operationalizing variables, writing a proposal, the IRB review process, collecting data, analyzing results, reporting results and presenting the findings. (Click on “Lab Manual” to the left; Opens in PDF format)

7. Bad Science: Out of the blue and in the pink

In response to an article published in Current Biology claiming that there is evolutionary support for why girls prefer pink (Hurlbert & Link, 2007), Writer Ben Goldacre wrote this column for The Guardian (August 25, 2007) to de-bunk both the myth that “blue is for boys and pink is for girls” and this piece of “bad science” in his words. He uses cross-cultural differences in color preference and cultural changes within the U.S. to question the “Biological components of sex differences in color preference” (the title of the original article). See the whole article by Goldacre including graphs and charts at his Bad Science website: http://www.badscience.net/?p=518#more-518.

8. Is There Anything Good About Men?

Social Psychologist Roy F. Baumeister, Florida State University, gave this Invited Address to the American Psychological Association, August, 2007. In his own words, “I don’t want to be on anybody’s side. Gender warriors please go home,” Baumeister argues that “rather than seeing culture as patriarchy, which is to say a conspiracy by men to exploit women, I think it’s more accurate to understand culture (e.g., a country, a religion) as an abstract system that competes against rival systems — and that uses both men and women, often in different ways, to advance its cause.” This piece is sure to give you and your students something to think — and debate — about!

9. Sex and Gender: The story of David Reimer

“In 1967, an anonymous baby boy was turned into a girl by doctors at Johns Hopkins Hospital. For 25 years, the case of John/Joan was called a medical triumph — proof that a child’s gender identity could be changed — and thousands of “sex reassignments” were performed based on this example. But the case was a failure, the truth never reported. Now the man who grew up as a girl tells the story of his life, and a medical controversy erupts.” See also the video of David’s story on YouTube (http://tinyurl.com/ypl2yv) (10 minutes, 24 seconds).

10. She’s Not There

Writer Jennifer Finney Boylan writes about her transgender experience with tremendous insight and great candidness in her book “She’s Not There”. Her website includes an excerpt from the book, her National Press Club speech, readers’ responses to the book, an interview and more.

December 2007

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 4, December, 2007

Hello and welcome to the sixteenth Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

Whew! We’re almost to the end of another semester! Here are some newly-added links to inspire you for the next semester. But, if you find yourself crawling to the finish line and in need something to get you through, there’s always the How the Grinch Stole Psychology Class exercise, which is one of my favorite links on Personality Pedagogy and reprised for this holiday season below.

The results are in! If we here at Personality Pedagogy could figure out a way to add more hours to a day, we’d have the world’s largest wiki! Responses to our user survey were very positive, with the majority of people knowing that we are a wiki and that visitors can contribute to the site. Most of our respondents, however, have not contributed to the site either because they don’t have the time or they are unsure of wiki technology. Let me assure you that editing is very easy (just hit the “edit” button on pages which are open for editing) and mistakes are easily fixed (just hit the “cancel” button). If all else fails, you can always just send us your ideas, contributions, and links in a good old e-mail and we’ll post it for you. Perhaps this break would be a good time for you to send us one of your assignments or examples? By the way, if you haven’t yet answered our survey, it’s not too late (see the link below).

The big news for this month is that Marianne will be spreading the wiki word at the National Institute for the Teaching of Psychology Conference in Florida in January. She will be attending the conference and presenting a poster on the Wonderful World of Wikis. She is also taking her SysAdmin/computer geek husband with her, to thank him for all his help in maintaining the site and proof-reading the newsletters.

Check out our new links this month described below and pass this e-mail along to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues (and to take our survey!). I wish you all peace and joy over the holidays and a healthy and productive New Year!


Marianne Miserandino

1. User survey
http: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=IEF4zEGvtw8I1v7naZGDCA_3d_3d

Please take a few moments to fill out this survey. Your responses will be used to help us understand our constituents and to ultimately improve the site. Your responses are anonymous and will be kept confidential.

2. How the Grinch Stole Psychology Class

After watching the 25 minute video of the classic Christmas story by Dr. Seuss, students analyze the Grinch’s personality and change of heart using theories and terms from personality including Freud, Adler, Horney, Maslow, and Rogers. A great end-of-the-semester review.

3. Just for fun

According to Michael Britt of The Psychology Files Podcast, in this bit of holiday cheer “Finally, the founders of the 4 major schools of thought find something they can do together” (Note that this link is not officially posted to the site, it’s available only to subscribers to this newsletter!)

4. Heterosexist Bias Lesson Plan and Questionnaire

The Advocates for Youth website provides this lesson plan ”To give straight people an opportunity to experience the types of questions that are often asked of gay, lesbian, and/or bisexual people”. Students answer a questionnaire and discuss the experience in small groups. Takes about 40 minutes. Includes questions for discussion.

5. McCrae (2002) Cross-Cultural Research on the Five Factor Model of Personality

McCrae, R. R. (2002). Cross-cultural research on the five-factor model of personality. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), ”Online Readings in Psychology and Culture” (Unit 6, Chapter 1). Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA (in PDF format).

6. Dopamine Jewelry

”Microscopic photographs of behavior altering chemicals showcased” in a key chain. Includes neurotransmitter, hormone, and other behavior-altering molecules such as caffeine, alpha-endorphin, acetylcholine, norephinephrine, beta-eendorphin, serotonin, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and others. The first 20 contributors to Personality Pedagogy will receive a key chain of their choice!

7. APA Writing Guide Online

This online workshop developed by Karen S. Mooney with graphics by Erin Karper at Purdue University is a very thorough guide to APA sytle. In addition to its many online examples and explanations, it includes a list of books and websites for more information.

8. Self-Esteem Games

Imagine you could play a computer game for five minutes each morning that would help you feel more secure and confident in yourself. Our research shows that people may be able to change the negative thought patterns that sometimes produce insecurity. We are now examining whether over time, with practice, people can develop positive, beneficial habits of thought to help them become more secure and self-confident on a long term basis — whether in the context of their working life, their personal relationships, or their overall sense of well being. Beginning in 2006, these games are being developed and marketed by MindHabits Inc.

9. Dandeneau & Baldwin (2004)

Click to access Dandeneau_Baldwin(2004).pdf

Dandeneau, S. D. & Baldwin, M. W. (2004). The Inhibition of Socially Rejecting Information Among People with High versus Low Self-Esteem: The Role of Attentional Bias and the Effects of Bias Reduction Training. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 584-602. (in PDF format)

10.  Mind Habits

According to the website: ‘MindHabits is based on scientifically tested and demonstrated tools that help reduce stress and boost confidence of players using principles from the new science of social intelligence. Research demonstrated benefits from playing just five minutes each day. Give it a try for free and see if it works for you!’ Trial version is free.

11. Sigmund Freud

Paul Hofer teaches this History of Psychology class at Johns Hopkins University. The site contains his syllabus, lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, and links to various works on the history of psychology, including Freud, Skinner and Behaviorism including Pavlov, Thorndike, and Watson.

12. B. F. Skinner

Paul Hofer teaches this History of Psychology class at Johns Hopkins University. The site contains his syllabus, lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, and links to various works on the history of psychology, including Freud, Skinner and Behaviorism including Pavlov, Thorndike, and Watson.

13. Against All Odds: Inside Statistics

Annenberg media presents this ”instructional series on statistics for college and high school classrooms and adult learners; 26 half-hour video programs and coordinated books”. Includes distributions, sampling, causation, surveys, experimental design, probability, significance tests and much more. The best part of all, you can view them online!

November 2007

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 3, November, 2007

Hello and welcome to the fifteenth Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

Things here at Personality Pedagogy have been busy! Thanks to the recent buzz on the Psych Teach discussion list, there has been a jump in the number of hits, the number of new subscribers, and — drum roll please — contributions to Personality Pedagogy. We are thankful for all of your wonderful feedback and support, so welcome to all of you! We are currently conducting a survey (see the link below) to find out what we can do to increase contributions to the wiki portion of our site. Please take a few moments to give us your opinion. The results will be summarized in the December newsletter.

Speaking of contributions, congratulations to Marc Patry for being our first contributor! For sending in his Analytical Paper Assignment (see below) to Personality Pedagogy, he will receive a neurotransmitter key chain. We’re always looking for submissions, so if you’ve got an interesting assignment, activity or example, just send it to us and we will post it on our site and give you the credit.

That’s right, send us a link and we’ll send you a chain! Visit our home page for details on how to contribute your ideas to the wiki portion of the site. We are looking for contributions to the teaching of personality psychology at all levels, from High School AP Introductory Psychology to an Upper-level elective in personality to a Graduate-level seminar on current research in personality psychology. Don’t be shy! If you wish to contribute something, but are unsure of how to do so, just e-mail me. I’ll help you out and you will receive a key chain featuring a neurotransmitter or similarly cool molecule! Got a link you love? Share it with the world by sending it to us.

Check out our new links this month described below. Feel free to pass this e-mail along to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues (and to take our survey!). I wish you renewed energy as those of you who teach on a semester schedule are heading into the beginning of the end and plenty of yummy leftovers from your Thanksgiving dinners to see you through!


Marianne Miserandino

1. User survey
http: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=IEF4zEGvtw8I1v7naZGDCA_3d_3d

Please take a few moments to fill out this survey. Your responses will be used to help us understand our constituents and to ultimately improve the site. Your responses are anonymous and will be kept confidential.

2. Assignments: Analytical Paper

Newsletter subscriber and Personality Pedagogy fan Marc W. Patry from Saint Mary’s University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada submitted this creative assignment in which students basically have to ”select and digest a study related to personality psychology and to connect it to the assigned reading, to current events, and to something about yourself.”

3. Sensation Seeking: The Psychology of Extreme Sports

Psychology teacher Michael Britt created an episode for his podcast called The Psych Files which discusses the connection between monoamine oxidase and sensation seeking in an episode entitled, “The Psychology of Extreme Sports.”  The episode includes makes use of much of the information found here on Personality Pedagogy and it includes a brief animation showing how neurotransmitters and Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors work.

4. Existential-Humanistic Psychotherapy and Education

Shrink Rap Radio: A Psychology talk and Interview Show (Podcast; Show #115, October 14th, 2007). In this episode, Dr. Dave talks with Myrtle Heery, Ph.D., M.F.T., Associate Professor of Psychology, Sonoma State University and Adjunct Faculty at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology in Palo Alto, California and Director of the International Institute of Humanistic Studies through which she offers two-year training program nationally and internationally for helping professionals. She discusses the basics of existential-humanistic psychotherapy which emphasizes the present moment and the choices which face us, and a brief overview of the five tenets of existential therapy.

5. Psychoanalyzing George W. Bush

Shrink Rap Radio: A Psychology talk and Interview Show (Podcast; Show #111, September 16th, 2007). In this episode, Dr. Dave talks with Justin A. Frank, M.D., a Washington, D.C. based psychoanalyst and author of the book, Bush On The Couch: Inside The Mind Of The President. Frank analyzes Bush the man, more human than we realize, and concludes that Bush is “seriously flawed” psychologically and questions whether he should be president.

6. Emotional Intelligence: Delay of Gratification

Eugene White, Salisbury University, Salisbury, Maryland, prepared this summary sheet that summarizes the results of the classic Marshmallow Test of Impulse Control by Walter Mischel.

7. Emotional Intelligence: Video showing Delay of Gratification with the Dilley Sextuplets

Dianne Sawyer for the ABC news program Primetime interviews the Dilley sextuplets and tests their ability to delay gratification using M&Ms in this replication of Michel’s classic Marshmallow Test. See also: http://abcnews.go.com/Primetime/story?id=132114&page=1 for background on the Dilleys.

8. Carol Dweck on Intelligence

This biographical profile of Carol Dweck includes her education, career, major influences on her work, her major contributions to the field, her ideas, research interests, selected list of publications, and a transcript and video clips of an interview with Dweck on her work. From the site maintained by J. A. Plucker on all things related to intelligence, including ”biographical profiles of people who have influenced the development of intelligence theory and testing, in-depth articles exploring current controversies related to human intelligence, and resources for teachers.”

9. All About Intelligence

J. A. Plucker maintains this site on all things related to intelligence, including “biographical profiles of people who have influenced the development of intelligence theory and testing, in-depth articles exploring current controversies related to human intelligence, and resources for teachers.”

10. Hot Topics: Intelligence

As part of its Science and Nature coverage the BBC designed this extensive introduction to intelligence, featuring key points about intelligence, definitions, a quiz on gender differences, video on learning before birth, language, IQ tests, emotional intelligence, clever celebrities, a reader poll, and the latest news on intelligence research.

11. Culture: Abnormal as Norm

“Actions deemed odd, psychotic or even barbaric by one culture may be perfectly acceptable to another” according to Steve J. Ayan and Iris Tatjana Calliess in this article from Scientific American, April 2005, leading us to consider cultural context before we label a behavior a personality disorder.

12. Traits and Scientists: What Made Carl Sagan Great?

”Science helps us understand the essential tension between orthodoxy and heresy in science” according to Michael Shermer in this ”Scientific American” article from May 2002 summarizing research on the five factor model and the balance between tradition and change. Researcher Frank Sulloway theorized what traits are shared by great scientists. In the case of Carl Sagan, he says, it was a balance between conscientiousness and openness.

13. Handshake and Personality

Click to access psp791110.pdf

Using the Five Factor Model, people can judge — correctly — some aspects of personality by a handshake. See the full article (in PDF format): “Handshaking, Gender, Personality and First Impressions,” William F. Chaplin, Ph.D., Jeffrey B. Phillips, Jonathan D. Brown, Nancy R. Clanton and Jennifer L. Stein, University of Alabama; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 79, No. 1. The APA press release is available here: http://www.apa.org/releases/handshake.html.

14. As Luck Would have it: The Five Factor Model and Luckiness

“Are some people really luckier than others, or is it all in their heads?” According to Michael Shermer in the April 2006 issue of Scientific American, the answer is a bit of both. Lucky people do tend to be higher in Extraversion, lower in Neuroticism and higher in Openness than non-lucky people according to research by Richard Wiseman at the University of Hertfordshire in England.

15. Five Factor Model: Do bilinguals have two personalities?

Click to access JRP_Ramirez.pdf

Nairán Ramírez-Esparza, Samuel D. Gosling, Verónica Benet-Martínez, JeVrey P. Potter and James W. Pennebaker (2006). Do bilinguals have two personalities? A special
case of cultural frame switching. Journal of Research in Personality 40, 99ˆ120. (in PDF format)

October 2007

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 2, October, 2007

Hello and welcome to the fourteenth Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting
what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.

Things here at Personality Pedagogy have that “good news – bad news” quality to them. The good news is that the site is busier than ever with more than 25,500 hits in one year, three-quarters of which are by first-time visitors from over 150 countries and all 50 states. This means that in addition to our core of repeat visitors — and loyal customers, namely YOU —  the site is still growing strong. This is very exciting indeed. The bad news is that there were no winners to our contribution contest because — and there is no way to put this delicately — there were no contributions! This has us saddened and puzzled. So, being good scientists, we’ve crafted a brief survey (10 questions) to find out how Personality Pedagogy can best serve its constituents. Please take 5 minutes to fill out this survey at: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=IEF4zEGvtw8I1v7naZGDCA_3d_3d. Your results will help us make improvements to the site. Responses will be summarized in the December newsletter.

Please, please, please, visit our home page for details on how to contribute your ideas to the wiki portion of the site. Remember that we are looking for contributions to the teaching of personality psychology at all levels, from High School AP Introductory Psychology to an Upper-level elective in personality to a Graduate-level seminar on current research in personality psychology. Don’t be shy! If you wish to contribute something, but are unsure of how to do so, just e-mail me. I’ll help you out and you will be eligible to win one of our fabulous prizes! Got a link you love? Share it with the world by sending it to us.

Check out our new links this month described below. We are confident that you will find a little something to spark up the mid-semester doldrums. Feel free to pass this e-mail along to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues (and to take our survey!!!!!!!!!!).


Marianne Miserandino

1. User survey
http: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=IEF4zEGvtw8I1v7naZGDCA_3d_3d

Please take a few moments to fill out this survey. Your responses will be used to help us understand our constituents and to ultimately improve the site. Your responses are anonymous and will be help confidential.

2. In Class Review: Grab That Spoon!

Educator and simulation game guru Sivasailam (Thiagi) Thiagarajan maintains a web site with tons of ideas to get participants involved and playing with ideas. Grab That Spoon! is ”a quick, five-minute game with a dash of friendly competition. It’s a game in which everyone participates regardless of the size of the group (5 or 500, it still works!). It’s a game that allows the learners to generate the review information, to participate in it, and to discuss their own understanding of the material learned. In other words, it’s a game in which the participants learn a lot in a little time!”

3. The Thiagi Group: The Source for Training Games and Interactive Experiential Strategies

Educator and simulation game guru Sivasailam (Thiagi) Thiagarajan of Barnga fame, maintains a web site with tons of ideas to get participants involved and playing with ideas. According to the website: ”We Do Training. And we do it differently. We use games and activities that engage participants. We keep them interacting with each other and with the content. We design training faster, cheaper, and better with an irreverent process that eliminates unnecessary steps that don’t add value. Come play with us! We’ll have you laughing and learning.” Check out their many ideas and sign up for their monthly e-mail newsletter.

4. Abert Ellis: Goodbye to a Legend

From the American Psychological Association, Monitor on Psychology, Volume 38, No. 9 October 2007. ”Ever the provocative gadfly, the late Albert Ellis helped thousands overcome their negative thinking to live freer, more productive lives.”

5. Conducting Psychological Research for Science Fairs: A Teacher’s Guide and Resource Manual

”Science fairs provide students with an opportunity to engage in exciting discoveries, learning, and potential awards and recognition. This resource provides guidance to teachers of high school psychology courses as they engage students in the scientific method and eventually supervise students who wish to participate in local, regional, and national science fair competitions in psychology. (Printed in 2004)” In PDF format.

6. Teach it Quick and Make it Stick

Professional trainer and speaker Sharon Bowman has a ton of ideas to keep audiences involved and learning. Check it out when you need a quick activity to liven up a content-heavy lecture, an ice breaker, or a special closing activity. Especially useful for large lecture classes.

September 2007

Personality Pedagogy Newsletter Volume 2, Number 1, September, 2007

Hello and welcome to the thirteenth Personality Pedagogy newsletter highlighting

what’s new at http://personalitypedagogy.arcadia.edu.
You may have noticed our site acting funny over the past two weeks or so. The good news is that Arcadia University upgraded our server so that we run much faster now. The bad news is that the upgrade inadvertently caused a bug which made pages with tables in them load funny. Sadly, this meant that many potential visitors were scared away when they saw a big error message after clicking on the “Theorists, Theories, and Topics” link and others. We have fixed it, and hope that you will give it another shot and visit us today!
The big news this month is that we’ve just enrolled our 100th subscriber to the monthly Personality Pedagogy newsletter. Congratulations to Boyd Timothy of Clark University. He will receive a really cool neurotransmitter molecule key chain. Read on for how you can get one of your own.
To celebrate the first birthday of Personality Pedagogy, we are running a contribution contest. From now to September 30, if you submit an idea for the site OR if add your contribution to one of the editable wiki pages you will be eligible to win a prize. The submitter of the best contribution will win their choice of one of the following three terrific teaching resources:
1. Handbook of the Teaching of Psychology by Stephen F. Davis and William Buskist

2. What the Best College Teachers Do by Ken Bains

3. Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms by Will Richardson.
AND, thanks to Amy Sweetman of Los Angeles City College, the creator of Introductory Psychology Resources wiki (see: http://www.intropsychresources.com/), the first 20 contributors to Personality Pedagogy will receive a neurotransmitter molecule key chain (see: http://www.dopaminejewelry.com). These key chains are attractive and make an interesting conversation piece.
Visit our home page for details on how to contribute your ideas to the wiki portion of the site. Remember that we are looking for contributions to the teaching of personality psychology at all levels, from High School AP Introductory Psychology to an Upper-level elective in personality to a Graduate-level seminar on current research in personality psychology. Don’t be shy! If you wish to contribute something, but are unsure of how to do so, just e-mail me. I’ll help you out and you will be eligible to win one of our fabulous prizes! Got a link you love? Share it with the world by sending it to us.
By now most of you are back to school. I hope that you are refreshed from a good summer and energized by your new students. To stay psyched this semester check out our new links this month described below. And feel free to pass this e-mail along to interested colleagues and invite them to sign up for future issues.


Marianne Miserandino

1. Tools for Teaching Evolutionary Psychology.

David M. Buss shares this Power Point presentation of how to teach undergraduates the basics of evolutionary psychology including natural selection and sexual selection. Along the way he shares 19 “tools” or hints for how to present the material to engage undergraduate students using vivid examples important to students such as mating, cooperation, aggression, social conflict and common clinical problems including depression and eating disorders.

2. The Psych Files: The Brains Behind Erikson Parts 2 (Episode 24) and 3 (Episode 25).

Michael Brit, former professor of psychology, broadcasts a podcast about psychology called The Psych Files. What is happening in your brain as you progress through life? ”In this episode [Part 2] we take a look at some of the changes that occur in your brain from birth to age 12. ”We finish off this series [Part 3] looking at your brain as you develop by examining what is happening in your brain as you age from adolescence to older adulthood. Also: an impersonated celebrity endorsement from Star Trek’s George Takai.” (Part 1, Episode 22, ”shows how to use Timeliner to compare timelines that focus on different aspects of life – in this case I merge Erikson’s stages with significant events in my life and then with some of the significant physical changes that occur in everyone’s life as we age.”)

3. Shrink Rap Radio: A Psychology talk and Interview Show (Podcast).

#105 – The Psychology of Doing Good.

In this Podcast Dr. Dave, a.k.a. David Van Nuys, Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Sonoma State University, interviews Stephen Post ”lead author of the 2007 book Why Good Things Happen to Good People: The Exciting New Research That Proves The Link Between Doing Good and Living A Longer, Healthier, Happier Life.  Dr. Post has written seven scholarly books on unselfish love and giving, and is the editor of eight other books. He is Professor of Bioethics & Family Medicine in the School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University. He is also President of the Institute for Research on Unlimited Love, Altruism, Compassion, and Service, which was founded in 2001 with a generous grant from the John Templeton Foundation. He has published over 140 articles in peer-reviewed journals representing the sciences, religion, and humanities. Dr. Post received the Distinguished Service Award from the National Board of the Alzheimer’s Association.”

4. The Development of Sexual Orientation: A Teaching Resource.

Click to access elmore07.pdf

Lynn A. Elmore of Hartwick College, wrote this resource ”to help teachers plan and teach a class on the development of sexual orientation. The seven teaching modules begin with an introduction to the topic and a review of the resources found within it…I highlight particular scenes or “teaching topics” that will be helpful in getting across important facts, ideas, concepts, and theories…[E]ach module ends with a review of some significant web sites.” Opens in PDF format.

5. Meditative Moments.

On this website, guided imagery expert Susan Castle talks the visitor through one of 3 relaxation meditation exercises of various lengths.

6. Fostering Critical Thinking in Personality Psychology: The Trait Paper Assignment.


Hittner, J. B. (1999). Fostering critical thinking in personalty psychology. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 26, 92-97. From the abstract: ”A personality trait-based term paper assignment that is appropriate for use in personality psychology courses and that is designed to foster critical thinking skills is introduced. The extent to which the trait questions correspond to generic critical thinking questions is considered, the specific thinking skills induced by each trait question are discussed, and potential limitations of the assignment are noted. Preliminary data are also presented which suggest that the trait-based term paper assignment stimulates critical thinking and enhances knowledge about personality traits. It is hoped that the ideas presented and issues discussed in the present article will encourage academic psychologists from all subdisciplines to develop writing assignments that foster critical thinking skills.” This assignment is not rooted in a particular model of traits and so is adaptable to any model.

7. Two Interactive Exercises for the Personality Psychology Course: Personality Collage and What’s My Defense Mechanism?

Click to access 82.pdf

Randall E. Osborne, Indiana University East, first presented these two interactive exercises for the personality psychology course at the 9th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations, in 1995. In the Personality Collage students and someone who knows them well each create a collage of the student’s personality. Students compare and contrast the two collages by answering various questions and come to understand the differences between self-view and other’s view of themselves. In the second exercise students must guess the defense mechanism depicted in a brief skit presented by their classmates. Opens in PDF format.

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